And the Advantages
of the Lovely Brew

Page Offered By Steve Van Nattan


It seems to me that you who read this Journal deserve some luxuries.  One of the truly choice luxuries of life is the consumption of that brew of the Bunyi Plant, Coffee.  Having traveled somewhat, and having lived in the homeland of the noble coffee bean, I feel reasonably prepared for this calling.  

It is always in order to find a worthy person to whom we might dedicate a page like this.  In view of their exceptional skills at growing and processing what I feel is the best coffee in the world, I dedicate this page jointly to the coffee farmers of Vera Cruz, Mexico and the people of Kaffa Province in Ethiopia. I really believe it is a toss up between Mexico and Ethiopia. It was the people of Ethiopia who sustained the coffee plant as keepers of God's Garden.  Thus, coffee is named for Kaffa, the primal estate of Buna or Khawa.


Here is a very curious new culinary idea-- Let's try it!

COFFEE NEWS From Around the World



We will not endeavour to schmooze you too much here, but we will try to simply allow this page to ramble along from week to week in the manner of any good coffee break room.  We will seek to observe the social grace of the Hilltop Cafe in Bailey, Michigan, where Frank Hall presides over the ceremonies every day unless he is coon hunting.  If you would presume to quote us as a source of absolute and reliable truth in coffee reporting, you are a real idiot.  However; having settled that matter, we WILL seek to deliver facts and data in a reasonably accurate form.  Just take it with a sip of Java.


Coffee appears to have originated in Abyssinia and certainly has an early presence around the Red Sea about AD 700. By the 13th and 14th centuries coffee had become part of cultural life, particularly in the cities, where coffee shops multiplied rapidly. Coffee cultivation was rare until the 15th and 16th centuries, when extensive planting of the tree occurred in the Yemen region of Arabia. The popularity spread through Europe to such an extent that during the 17th and 18th centuries there were more coffee shops in London than there are today. Coffee shops then were influential places, used extensively by artists, intellectuals, merchants and bankers and a forum for political activities and developments.

Large-scale cultivation was pioneered by the Dutch in their colonies in the 17th century. The British and French followed, exploiting the tropical climate and peoples of the colonies to start one of the world's biggest trades. In recent years the welfare of growing areas has become of more concern and so there is more control over the turning of land into coffee plantations and better trading deals are being negotiated.


There are two main commercial varieties of coffee-bean favored worldwide- Arabica and Robusta. Arabica is the most widely grown and preferred bean, growing on higher land, usually between about three and seven thousand feet altitude. Robusta, a more hardy variety, is grown at lower altitudes and requires less rainfall. It is important for blending and is widely used for instant coffee. Connoisseurs of good coffee usually shy away from Robusta in favor of a dark Middle Eastern Arabica flavor. Your editor avoids all Robusta, which he feels taste too much like cardboard. But be warned, not all Arabicas are created equal. 

All coffee is grown in tropical areas since it can take no frost.  Coffee is ALL "Mountain Grown."  The TV commercial in the USA some years ago by Folgers was a real joke.  Coffee cannot be grown on flat terrain since the plant needs plenty of rainfall, yet it must also drain well.

The shrub or small tree, 15 to 20 feet high at maturity, bears shiny green, elliptic leaves, and white fragrant flowers that bloom for only a few days. During the six or seven months after flowering, the fruit develops, changing from light green to red and, ultimately, when fully ripe and ready for picking, to deep crimson. The mature fruit, which resembles a cherry, grows in clusters attached to the limb by very short stems, and it usually contains two seeds, or beans, surrounded by a sweet pulp.

The coffee tree produces its first full crop when it is about 5 years old. Thereafter it produces consistently for 15 or 20 years. Some trees yield 2 to 3 lb. of marketable beans annually, but 1 lb. is considered an average annual yield.

Two methods are used for curing the coffee-beans. The wet method is better than the simpler and cheaper dry method.

In the wet method, machines remove the pulp of the ripe coffee cherries (softened in water) exposing the beans' protective coat of parchment. The beans are then soaked and fermented in large tanks to loosen their covering which is washed away with water until the beans are clean. They are then dried by the sun or a machine to be put into a huller which removes the remaining covering. The polished beans (called green coffee) are ready then to be sorted by hand or machine to remove defective beans and extraneous material and finally to be graded by size.

In the dry method, the coffee cherries are spread thinly on mats or drying grounds. They are raked and turned frequently to dry evenly in the sun, which may take two weeks or more. Once dry, the cherries are put through hullers which remove the dry pulp, the parchment and the silver skins.

Coffee can be stored "green," or unroasted, for up to five years.  Once Coffee is roasted, it immediately starts losing its flavor.  This is because the cellulose in the coffee has been carmelized by roasting, and the oils and bean itself deteriorate.  The flavor is in the oil, and it is aromatic.  This means the oils evaporate constantly, and this can result in stale coffee.  Vacuum packing only slows this process.  The best results in brewing coffee are gained by buying "green' beans and roasting them yourself.  Any Arab or Ethiopian will tell you that.


Temperatures for roasting range from about 193 degrees Centigrade (about 380 Fahrenheit) for a light roast, through about about 400 F. for a medium roast, to about 218 C (about 425 F) for a dark roast. Once the roasting is completed, the beans are transferred to mesh trays for rapid cooling which halts the roasting process.  Small electric home roasting machines are now obtainable - have fun perfecting your unique, personal roast.  If you are going to roast your own coffee, follow these rules:

1. Keep the green beans dry until you roast them.  Mildew can set in where there is dampness.

2. Roast only as much as you intend to use immediately, or for no more than 3 days.

3. Roast the beans in a heavy cast iron skillet, or some folks oven roast them at about 400 degrees F.

4. In a skillet, roast the beans on a pretty high beat.  DO NOT wander around and leave the beans.  Stand there and watch them carefully.

5. When the beans are about one or two shades lighter than you want them, jerk the skillet, and immediately pour them out on a cookie (biscuit) sheet.  Spread them at once out to a single bean layer in depth so they will cool quickly.  For Mexican style coffee, roast for a dark color, and just before taking the beans off the flame, stir in a couple of tablespoons of sugar and pull the skillet only after the sugar stops bubbling. This is not for sweetening.  Rather; it gives a very black cup without adding bitter qualities.  This is my favorite method.

For Middle Eastern coffee, drop about ten pods of whole cardamom into the skillet as it finishes.  Leave them in the unground coffee and grind them with the coffee later.  Cinnamon or cocoa powder may also be sprinkled over the coffee just as you pull it off of the flame for another unique flavor.

6. As the beans cool, they will turn darker since the oils in the beans are still at cooking temperature.  Beware-- The beans will stay rather hot for a while.

7. Cool the beans completely before storing them.  Store in an airtight container in the freezer.  DO NOT grind them now.

8. Grind only as much as you need at each brewing.  Wait until your guests have arrived.  The aroma is very encouraging to coffee lovers.  In fact, in the Middle East and Ethiopia, it is customary to wait until the guests are present to roast the coffee, and many home makers roast the beans on a small fire in the main living room of the home.  This ritual is one you must experience to understand.

Generally speaking, Arabica coffee will give you a richer and more flavorful coffee, but you must roast it very dark to carmelize all the cellulose, or you will get a bitter cup.  Americans demand a bland and cardboard taste in coffee compared to the rest of the world, so they need Robusta coffees which can be lightly roasted and still taste fairly good.  Personally, I can't stand the commercial coffees of the USA.  After living in Ethiopia and drinking coffee with Arabs, Colombian coffee tastes pretty sorry folks.  Also, the British make a good strong cup of coffee which must be taken in smaller doses than US coffee blends.  It is possible to vastly improve on US blends by buying cans of unground beans, then roast them until they are very dark before grinding them.  More later on the coffees of various countries of the world.


Good coffee can be made in an electric American drip type coffee maker.  But, do roast and grind your own coffee please.  Here is a page which describes the various ways of making coffee and the cooking pots which are used.  I don't think a person needs to get all wrapped up in these various devices to have good coffee.  I suggest you use an electric drip machine for everyday, then use the Middle Eastern Ibrik for special occasions.

Let me tell you about the Middle Eastern Ibrik. This little kettle-like device is the most artistic form of brewing coffee because of the ritual involved.  Master this technique, and your guests will be in awe.

First, you will need to go to a specialty coffee store or kitchen store and buy an ibrik like the one pictured.  Also, you should buy enough handless Arab cups for all the guests you expect to entertain at one time.  Now, the best thing is to go to a Middle Eastern store in a city near you, and buy the ibrik and cups.  You will get them much cheaper, and they will be authentic.  The cups will come in boxes of a dozen.  Don't worry if they are "made in China"-- That is normal.

Next, roast the beans very dark.  I suggest you roast and grind AFTER your guests are present in order to get the maximum mood and social impact.  Of course, you will NOT want to roast the beans during the dinner event if you don't have an exhaust hood over your stove.  In that case, roast ahead of time.  Grind the roasted coffee beans until they are a fine powder.  If you add cardamom to the coffee for the Yemen and Arab touch, toast it slightly with the coffee while roasting so it will grind properly.

Fill the ibrik about half full of water.  If you have more guests than your ibrik will handle in one brewing, you will need a bigger one, or do more than one brewing.  Don't try to brew Middle Eastern / Arab coffee by filling the ibrik to the top.  The best social results will be gained if the ibrik can handle all guests in one brewing.  Heat the ibrik to boiling.

You must have all the cups you will use, in serving your guests, lined up near the brewing scene and preferably on a serving tray.

Now, you will have to experiment BEFORE you try this with guests.  With the water in the ibrik boiling moderately, and with the handle in your left hand, drop about three table spoons of ground coffee into the average sized ibrik.  More coffee will be needed in a larger ibrik.  Do not skimp on the amount of coffee.  This is NOT American weak stuff you are brewing.

Now, you will have a surprise when you drop the coffee into the boiling water.  It will boil only briefly before it foams up rapidly--  almost violently.  You WANT this foam to come right to the top of the ibrik and not run over.  This takes practice of course.  So, you will need to pull the ibrik off the heat as the foam rises.  With a spoon, quickly put a spoonful of the foam into each guests cup.

Now, return the ibrik to the fire.  Hold the ibrik over the fire, and try to get the foam to rise more gently this time.  Pull it off the fire, and let the foam settle.  Do this a third time, and the coffee is done.  Trust me, three times, no more and no less, is perfect!  Pour it at once, and serve your guests.  The object of the foaming trick is to have some foam in the cup of each guest as you serve it.  This means the guests must be seated and waiting to be served, and you cannot let anything interrupt the flow of the brewing ceremony so that the foam is just right.

If sugar is to be added to the coffee, let the guests do this after serving them.  In Ethiopia, a pinch of salt will be added, and on very special occasions, a bit of kibbei (rendered spiced butter) will be added to each cup before serving. In Ethiopia the first sip is considered the height of posh living and a great honor to the guest.  Arabs usually drink the coffee with nothing added, but don't assume this.   Some like loads of sugar.  

Don't worry about the grounds getting into the cup.  The last swig, which includes much of the grounds, is considered a treat by most Arabs.  Do it right, OK?  One more thing--  If you are entertaining Arabs, they may excuse themselves after the coffee ceremony since the serving of coffee signals the end of the evening.  If you don't want them to make this conclusion, you had better tell them so.


Tradition in the Middle East tells us that Muslim monks were visiting Ethiopia, and they noticed that Ethiopian herd boys and old sages were chewing the leaves of the Bunyi, or Khawa tree.  When asked why, the Ethiopians said the leaves helped them to stay awake.  The Muslim monks thought this would be good to help them stay awake during their devotions.  They took seeds back to Saba and Yemen, and there you have it.  All these thousands of years later, truck drivers still pull into cafes all over the world to get a cup and stay awake.

In about 1600, coffee was slowly making its way into Europe, but the priests of the Catholic Church were angry over this since the main merchants of coffee were Arab Muslims.  The Bishops of Rome petitioned Pope Clement VIII to forbid coffee drinking to all of Christendom.  This was a touch and go situation for the future of coffee.  Pope Clement listened to the Bishops give all the sordid properties of coffee and how it was the invention of the Devil.  Then Clement asked for a cup of the brew to sample and see if it was as evil as they had told him.  Clement sipped the coffee thoughtfully, and then he declared the the brew was "so delicious that it would be a pity to allow the Muslim infidels to have exclusive use of it."  Thereupon, Pope Clement VIII baptised the coffee to make it truly a Christian beverage.  Even Martin Luther did not disagree on this doctrinal point, and J.S. Bach even wrote a Coffee Concerto during this era.

In about 1700 in England, many coffeehouses featured a brass-bound box near the door.  On the box was a sign which read, "To Insure Promptness."  Patrons were asked to drop a coin into the box, and the proceeds were then divided among the coffeehouse staff at the end of the day.  Later, the sign was abbreviated to read simply, "TIP", and we are still tipping the waiter.

Coffee was brewed by explorers in North America and served as a peace offering.  In fact, it still works.  Many a disagreement has been resolved over a cup of coffee.

The French gourmet, Brillat-Savarin had this to say about coffee:  "A cup of coffee well laced with milk will not hinder your intelligence; on the contrary, leaving your stomach free of rich foods, it will not tire your brain.... Soon the suave molecules of Mocha will stir your blood, without unduly heating it; the organ of thought will feel a sympathetic force: work will become easier, and you will feel well right up until the main meal which will restore your body and give you a calm and delicious evening."  

Only a Frenchman could raise coffee to such lofty heights.


The coffee "bean" is actually the seed of the coffee cherry. Two beans grow face-to-face within each cherry, and there are about four thousand handpicked beans in a single pound of specialty coffee.

Coffee is a big business: It is second only to oil as a commodity on world markets.

Occasionally a single round bean, called a "Peaberry" will form instead of the normal 2 flat ones.

A scientific report from the University of California found that the steam rising from a cup of coffee contains the same amount of antioxidants as three oranges. The antioxidants are heterocyclic compounds which prevent cancer and heart disease. Inhale deeply groupies.

52% of Americans drink coffee.

Turkish Proverb - "Coffee should be black as hell, strong as death, and as sweet as love."

The heavy tea tax imposed on the colonies in 1773, which caused the "Boston Tea Party," resulted in America switching from tea to coffee. Drinking coffee was an expression of freedom.

In the last three centuries, 90% of all people living in the Western world have switched from tea to coffee.

Coffee is the most popular beverage worldwide with over 400 billion cups consumed each year.

Hawaii is the only state of the United States in which coffee is commercially grown. Hawaii features an annual Kona Festival, coffee picking contest. Each year the winner becomes a state celebrity. In Hawaii coffee is harvested between November and April.

The first coffee plant to be trnasplanted from Arabia was carried by a Dutchman to Java.  Thus, Java coffee.

Australians consume 60% more coffee than tea, a sixfold increase since 1940.

Dark roasted coffees actually have LESS caffeine than medium roasts? The longer a coffee is roasted, the more caffeine burns off during the process.

An acre of coffee trees can produce up to 10,000 pounds of coffee cherries. That amounts to approximately 2,000 pounds of beans after hulling or milling.

Over 53 countries grow coffee world wide, but all of them lie along the equator between the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn.

"Hard Bean" means the coffee was grown at an altitude above 5000 feet.

October 1st is the official Coffee Day in Japan.



In an issue of Science  News, March 2, 1996, p. 143, I read that research had been done at the Harvard School of Public Health to see how drinking of beverages would affect the incidence of kidney stones.  It was learned that the more you drink water, the less your chances for kidney stones.  Not very startling, right?  Water is the Old Testament fluid to cleanse things, houses, etc.  Blood cleanses people.

Well, the Harvard boys took it a bit further.  They tested various beverages.  They found that your chances of kidney stones dropped 10% if your drinking beverage was coffee, and 14% if you drank tea.  They found, on the other  hand, that your chances of having kidney stones increased by 36 % if your beverage was grapefruit or apple juice.  So, coffee, sometimes referred to as "Baptist holy water," is good for your kidneys.  By the way, it is the caffeine in the coffee and tea which stimulates the kidneys to cleanse themselves.  The Seventh Day Adventist guruette, Ellen G. White, was NOT in fellowship with real science. 

Frankly, I would not be at all surprised to see Arab coffee at the Marriage Feast of the Lamb when the saints are feasted in the Glory by Jesus Christ.  Coffee seems to do such wonderful things when served in a Middle Eastern protocol.  Of course, tea will probably be served so that the English don't get lonely.

According to Paul Harvey, source of many useless facts, research on animals has proven that cancer was restrained and regressed by generous doses of coffee. Thus, we find another good reason to use the brew of good health.

Regular caffeinated coffee is 100% unrelated to heart attack.
No research has ever proven otherwise.  
Now, if YOU personally react to caffine, that is different, but for the average heart patient,
coffee is not any threat.  
Mayo Clinic Health Letter

What a great way to survive nuclear war!
Source:  The New Scientist

"Four-minute warning"

Rob Edwards

DRINKING COFFEE could protect people from radioactivity, according to scientists in India who have found that mice given caffeine survive otherwise lethal doses of radiation.

A team from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Bombay injected 471 mice with varying amounts of caffeine and then exposed them to 7.5 grays of gamma radiation--usually a lethal dose. But 25 days later, 70 per cent of the mice given 80 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight one hour before radiation exposure were still alive. By contrast, all 196 of the mice not given caffeine and exposed to the same dose of radiation had died.

Higher doses of caffeine--100 milligrams per kilogram--also led to the majority of the mice surviving over the same period, as did administering the drug just half an hour before irradiation. But all those given a lower dose of 50 milligrams per kilogram died, along with mice that were only injected with caffeine after they had been irradiated. Kachadpillill C. George, who led the research, points to earlier studies which suggest that caffeine--1,3,7-trimethylxanthine--reacts with the hydroxyl radicals produced when cells are irradiated.

This, he says, could prevent the radicals from damaging cells and shutting down vital bodily functions, such as the production of blood cells in bone marrow. Bone marrow failure was the main cause of death among the irradiated mice.

George suggests that a better understanding of the protection offered by caffeine might lead to improvements in the way that radiation is used to treat cancer. His study is published in the latest Journal of Radiological Protection (vol 19, p 171).

Other scientists are cautious about interpreting George's results, however. Peter O'Neill, a radiation researcher from the Medical Research Council's Radiation and Genome Stability Unit at Harwell in Oxfordshire, agrees that caffeine reacts with hydroxyl radicals. "But it may require very high concentrations in order to protect cells from these radicals," he says.

A cup of fresh coffee typically contains between 80 and 100 milligrams of caffeine while instant coffee contains slightly less, according to Audrey Baker of the European Coffee Science Information Centre in Oxfordshire. A person weighing 70 kilograms might therefore need to drink at least 100 cups to receive the same dose as the mice. However, George believes that smaller amounts of caffeine might protect people from lower doses of radiation than those used in his experiment.

George is aware of the difficulty of extrapolating his data from mice to humans. "But at the same time," he says, "it does suggest that coffee might have some beneficial effects in protecting against radiation."


1a: High quality coffee beans. 1aaa: Highest quality coffee beans identified and described stating size, quality, density, and moisture content.

A: Largest size grade in India, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.

AA: Largest size grade in Kenya, Tanzania, and New Guinea, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.

AAA: Largest size grade in Peru, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.

About: Theoretically, an error of +/- 5%. In actuality, -2% to -4.5%.

Acidity, Acidy, Acid: The pH of the substance. In coffee it is about 5. The tartness taste to coffee.

Afloat: The coffee is in route on a ship.

Aged Coffee: Coffee held in warehouse for several years in order to reduce acidity and increased body. Aged coffee is held longer than an old crop, or mature coffee. The official position of Majestic Coffee and Tea's owner is it taste like cork. And is of poor taste. Some people in the world may argue with this position.

Altura: In spanish means heights and describes Mexican coffee that has been grown high or "mountain grown".

American Roast: medium brown.

Alqueir: A term used to describe the capacity of a liquid. In coffee terms it is 50 kilograms.

And/or: A term which both, all, or one. When in a coffee contract it means both, either, but not mixed.

Arabica: Coffea Arabica, a coffee bean developed for wider latitudes. The most common cultivated species of coffee in the modern market.  Preferred in the Middle East for dark roast and brewing by an Ibrik.

Arbitrage: A transaction where the operator takes advantage of a communication delay time. Where the coffee is purchased and sold simultaneously to the advantage of the operator.

Aroma: The fragrance produced by any substance. Smell.

Arroba: A term for weight in Central and South America. Generally, 12.5 kilos or 27.5 pounds.

Automatic Drip: coffee brewers that automatically heat and filter water the coffee.

Balance: A tasting term applied to coffee or wine means no single taste characteristic overwhelms others.

Bag: Usually a burlap sack of coffee. In various countries it is a different weight. As an example: Brazil a bag is 132 pounds. Colombia it is 154 pounds. In Angola it is 176 pound.

Bale: Another term for bag. About 176 pounds but changes depending on who is using the term.

Batch Roaster: A machine which roasts a given quantity at one time. In effect, it is a roaster which does not continually roast beans. There is an identifiable start and end time to the roasters capabilities.

Benefico: A Spanish term for establishments that have cleaning, washing, drying, and sorting machines.

Black beans: Dead coffee which fell off the tree. 1 imperfection.

Black jack coffee: Coffee beans which turned bad after picking or during shipping.

Blend: A mix of two or more coffee beans.

Body: The sense of thickness associated with taste.

Bourbon: Coffee beans which come from plants which have not been altered originating from the Isle of Bourbon. Coffea Arabica.

Braca: A measure of length; 2 meters and 2 centimeters.

Bright: a taste term for acidic.

Brisures: Broken and separated by screening.

Broken: Cracked coffee beans.

Brokers: Generally anyone paid a commission involved in trade.

Bullhead: An extra large coffee bean. Sometimes a peaberry which has not totally grown together.

Bundles: Another term for bale.

CC, C/C: Current Crop.

C&f: Cost of the coffee bean and freight.

Caracol: Another word for Peaberry; a large single round coffee bean.

Caturra: A recently developed subvariety of the Coffea Arabica which is better disease resistant.

Cif: Cost of the coffee bean, insurance, and freight.

Cafe beneficiado: Hulled coffee.

Cafe bonifieur: Thoroughly cleaned and polished coffee beans.

Cafe de panno: Coffee picked in the cloth. Coffee picked very carefully where a cloth is placed on the ground so no dirt gets in accidently if the bean falls.

Cafe despolpado: Washed coffee or pulped coffee, is the process.

Cafe em casca: Coffee in parchment.

Cafe em ceraja: Coffee in the red cherry.

Cafe em coco: Coffee in the dried pod.

Cafe en parche: Coffee in the parchment.

Cafe habitant: Coffee which has not been polished.

Cafe rebeneficiado: Coffee reseparated or improved.

Cafe terreir: Coffee washed and dried in coco.

Cafeate: Coffee with milk.

Cafetal: A plantation of coffee trees.

Cafeine C8H10N4O2; an alkaloid substance found in the coffee bean, the leaf, some tea leaf, yerba mate, cocoa bean.

Caffeine content: in a cup of coffee about 1.5 grains.

Caffeeol, Caffeol, Coffeol: A volatile aromatic conglomerate formed during roasting. Essence of coffee, coffee oils.

Caffetannic acid: Erroneously term used to describe the acids of coffee. There is no such compound.

Cargo bags: Bags delivered to the boat, the shipper, the receiver, etc.

Cargo slacks: Bags of coffee that have become slack through leakage in transit.

Cherry: Name applied to the ripe fruit of the coffee tree.

Chicory: An addition or filler in coffee made from the plant, cichorium intybus.

Chop: Before shipping, each invoice of coffee is made up into a number of division called chops. The bags in each division are marked with a particular chop number.

Cinnamon Roast: a term for the lighter roasts.

City Roast: A term for a medium dark roasted coffee.

Coffee fruit: The berry which contains the seed.

Coffee grade: One who grades coffee.

Coffeol: Essence of coffee, coffee oils.

Cold Water Method: a way of brewing coffee using cold water rather than hot water.

Commercial Coffees: general refers to a brand name coffee which is preground. Used by some countries to differentiate between those coffees which the locals can drink and those exported.

Commissario: A name used to designate the commission merchant at coffee ports who bought from the planter, or sold the planter's coffee on the commission, stored it in a warehouse, and sold it to an exporter.

Commission merchant: a person or firm receiving coffee on consignment for sale in a consuming country.

Complexity: a tasting term describing sensation shifts; resonance, depth.

Continous Roaster: a roaster that roasts coffee continually as opposed to a batch roaster.

Conto: A term in currency equal to 1000 cruzeiros.

Contract: A Coffee Exchange contract is 32,500 lbs. (250 bags)

Country damage: An insurance term meaning damaged occurring in the country of origin while in transit to the port of loading.

Crema: the pale brown foam covering the surface of a well brewed cup of espresso.

Cup testing: Judging the merits of a coffee by roasting, grinding, and brewing some of it. The brew is sipped.

Dark French Roast: a roast almost jet black in color, thin bodied and bittersweet tasting a bit like burnt charcoal.

Dark Roast: a roast which the beans are just turning black but still look brown.

Date of invoice: date from the time of purchase and not from the time of shipment.

Decaffeinated: coffee which has had the caffeine removed or blocked in such a way that the caffeine will not leave the bean during brewing.

Decaffeination Process: the process by which the coffee was decaffeinated.

Delivered: The seller undertakes to guarantee the safe carriage at his expense to the point stipulated in the contract, and reweighed at destination. discounts: Some price less that the normal price.

Demitasse: a half size cup for espresso.

Doser: A spring loaded device on certain espresso grinders which dispenses single servings of ground coffee.

Drip Method: a brewing method that drips the hot water over the bed of coffee grounds.

Dry fermenting: When washed, coffee is fermented without water.

Dry Processed Coffee: a process to remove the husk from the fruit after the coffee berries have been dried. Generally scraping the berry and considered inferior to the washed or fermented process.

Dry roast: A roasting process in which no water is used to check the roast. The operator depends entirely upon his cooling apparatus for quick cooling.

Earthiness: a tasting term describing coffee which taste a little off and a bit like dirt.

En oro: Term for washed coffee when the parchment and silver skin have been removed. Clean coffee.

En parche: term used for coffee in the parchment.

Espresso: a method to brew coffee which forces the water into the grind by pressure.

Estate Grown: Coffee grown on large farms as opposed to small peasant plots, usually old family owned plantations.

European Preparation: removing imperfections by hand.

Excelso: a grade of coffee which includes size, quality, and imperfections.

Ex dock: Contracts requiring the buyer to take delivery from the pier.

Ex ship: Coffee which is sold before arrival with the understanding that the buyer will remove it immediately after unloading on the dock.

Extra: second best grade of coffee.

Ex warehouse: coffee which is warehoused which are placed at the disposal of the buyer.

Faq: Fair average quality.

Fazenda: A coffee plantation.

Fazendero: A proprietor of a fazenda.

Fermenting: A process where yeasts eat the sugars in a substance.

Filtered Method: coffee brewed with a filter where the coffee is held separate from the sitting water.

Finish: the after taste or the lingering taste of the coffee.

Flip Drip: a device which water is heated on the bottom of the brewer, when boiling, the device is flipped over and the water drips down through the coffee which was loaded in the middle of the brewer.

Fluid Bed Roaster: a roaster which cooks the bean by holding them up with a blast of hot air.

French Press: a device which brews coffee by allowing the grinds to sit in the water, when finished, a press pushes the grounds to the bottom.

French Roast: a roast black in color tasting bittersweet but not like burnt charcoal.

Finca: A coffee plantation.

Finquero: A proprietor of a finca.

Flat bean: A larger bean without the curly characteristic generally void of acid.

Fob: Free on board. The seller agrees to place the product safely on board the carrier designated by the purchaser. Generally describes the time title is transferred.

Forwarder: An agent who takes charge of a coffee shipment for interior clients and directs transportation.

French roast: Means the bean is roasted sufficiently to bring the oils to the surface of the bean.

Full city roast: Darker than city roast.

Futures: Coffee sold for delivery sometime in the future.

Gamey, Gaminess: other terms which mean off in taste. Doesn't taste right but can't explain what it is.

General average: An insurance term meaning a loss arising from a voluntary and successful sacrifice or expenses incurred under extraordinary circumstance for the purpose of averting a threatening danger to the common safety.

GHB: Good Hard Bean.

Glazing: Coating the bean to preserve the natural flavor.

Good Hard Bean: a grade of coffee grown at altitudes above 3000 feet. Term varies depending on the country where the bean is grown.

Grade: The measure of quality.

Green Coffee: Unroasted coffee beans.

Group: the fixture protruding from the front of an espresso machine which makes more than one cup at a time.

Groundy: An earthly taste. The taste of dirt.

Hard: coffee with a less mild taste. Generally a term for "not as good."

Hard Bean: same a good hard bean, but more universal and general means a denser bean.

Harsh: A term to describe a certain coffee flavor.

HB: Hard Bean.

HG: High Grown.

HGC: High Grown Central.

Hidey coffee, hidy coffee: Coffee which smells and tastes like hides. Coffee which is shipped wrapped in animal hides.

Hulling: The last step in the preparation of washed coffee.

Husking: Cleaning the dried cherry.

Importer: A person or firm that buys coffee form a producing country and brings it into a nonproducing country.

In store: A contract requiring the seller to store the coffee, clean it, and make it ready for delivery.

Invisible supply: The unknown stocks of coffee, including those held by roasters.

Invoice: One or more chops of coffee billed as one sale.

Italian Roast: a darker roast than American.

Java: An island of Indonesia. An arabica cup of coffee. Any cup of coffee.

Kilogram: 2.2046 pounds.

Last bag notice: A term used by cargo when the last bags are being unloaded. A term used by marketers defining coffee which has been sold before arrival, when notice is given by cargo, the importer can transfer ownership of the coffee.

Lavando Fino: best grade of Venezuelan coffee.

Laterals: Side branches, often horizontal.

Limu: a low acid washed coffee, typically from Ethiopia.

LGC: Low Grown Central.

Longberry harrar: a grade of coffee from Ethiopia. The beans are larger than shortberries.

Machine epirre: Machine stoned:

Made sound: Damaged coffee which has been cleaned.

MAM: an acronym for Medelin, Armenia, and Manizales Colombian coffees which are typically sold together in one contract.

Maragogip: an extremely large porous bean.

Mat: All Java coffee is exported in mats weighing about 67 pounds.

Mature Coffee: Generally, a term for coffee still in its parchment waiting for an order which is older than one generation of crop.

Mazagran: The French name for a drink composed of cold coffee and seltzer water:

Mbuni: Unwashed poor quality coffee.

MC: Methylene Chloride; generally used in Decaffeinated coffee.

Microwave Brewers: brewers which work in a microwave oven.

Middle Eastern Coffee: another term for Turkish Coffee, coffee ground to a fine powder, served grounds and all.

Mild coffees: Coffees free of the harsh flavor.

Mocha: A small irregular bean, in color alive green. Has a unique acid character. Generally shipped from Mocha Yemen. Sometimes; mixed with coffee shipped from Mocha Yemen.

Monsooned Coffee: coffee deliberately exposed to monsoon winds in open warehouse to increase body and reduce acidity.

Mulch: A layer of grass, leaves, or compost, placed over the surface of the soil.

Musty: A flavor as a result of overheating or lack of proper drying.

New Crop: freshly picked and processed coffee crop.

No arrival: Didn't arrive as per contract.

No sale: Didn't arrive or was not as contracted for so the sale in incomplete.

Notice: Announcement of delivery.

Old Crop: any crop which has been sitting around a long time. Generally, any crop which is older than one crop. Depending on handling, this may not be aged or mature crop.

Open Pot: one of the oldest methods, leave the coffee in an open pot where the grind separates from the brew by settling or straining.

Parchment: The endocarp of the coffee fruit. It lies between the fleshy part or pericarp and the silver skin. Remove during hulling process.

Particular average: An insurance term meaning a partial loss or damage to ship, cargo, or any of them resulting directly from the perils of the voyage and of purely accidental nature.

PC, P/C: Past Crop; older than one generation but still in parchment during storage.

Peaberry: A rounded bean from an occasional coffee cherry which contains but one seed instead of the usual flat sided pair.

Percolation: any method of brewing where the hot water is pumped up and gravity falls through the grind.

Pergamino: Parchment, Pergamino coffee is coffee that has been dried after pulping fermenting and washing.

Pile: Coffee dried and hulled by dry process.

Plantation coffee: Pergamino or parchment coffee.

Points: Fluctuations of prices on the commodities market. A term for grading coffee.

Primo Lavado: a grade of coffee which includes most of the fine coffees of Mexico. Generally a contract term which means the coffee is of good grade but not really specific.

Primary market: The market in the country of production.

Pulping: The first step after picking. Removing the outer skin of the berry.

PW: Prime Washed.

Pyrolysis: chemical breakdown during roasting of fats and carbohydrates into oils which provide the flavor and aroma.

Quakers: Unripe plighted or underdeveloped coffee beans.

Rat eaten: Bags attacked by rats on the ship. Unsalable bags of coffee.

Reis: Brazilian money.

Rich, Richness: a taste term of good body and/or acidity.

Rio, Rio flavor: A heavy and harsh taste characteristic of coffees grown in the Rio district of Brazil.

Rioy, Rio-y: generally Rio tasting.

Rubbery coffee: Taste like rubber.

SC: Standard Central.

SHB: Strictly Hard Bean.

SHG: Strictly High Grown.

SHGC: Strictly High Grown Central.

Ship filings: Coffee swept overboard or fell off the pier.

Ship samples: Samples which precede the actual shipment.

Ship sweepings: All loose coffee swept up from the floor of piers, ship holds, or warehouse which are not suitable for consumption.

Shipper's slacks: Bags of coffee originally delivered by the shipper to the steamer in a slack filled condition. Not a completely filled bag.

Shit Coffee: Although vulgar, it exists and is coffee berries which have been eaten and the hard bean is excremented by a rare civit cat. Or, any coffee beans processed in such a manner from dung, feces or ejected from the bowels.

Silver skin: A thin, papery covering on the coffee bean surface.

Sizing: Grading the size of the coffee bean.

Skimmings: That part of the bag which has been damaged by moisture. The damaged portion being skimmed off. Grade are "gs" for good skimmings, "ms" for not so good skimmings, and "ps" for poor skimmings.

Slack: Bags which have become torn or otherwise not full.

Soft Bean: coffees grown at low altitudes. Generally a more pours or less dense bean.

Sound coffee: Coffee in marketable condition.

Source: The place of origin.

Specialty Coffee: a term to differentiate between large commercial roasters and coffees which are more individual in marketing. Small scale roasters or coffee sold by the grower.

Spills, spillings: All such coffee retrieved with a clean shovel, scooped or otherwise suitable appliance from piles of coffee spilled in the ship's holds, or on the pier.

Spore: The seed of fungi, ferns, mosses, and other flowerless plants.

Spot: The spot market is where the purchaser actually buys the beans. As opposed to the future's market where the sale of coffee is at sometime in the future.

Standard: A fixed quality.

Steamer sweat: An insurance term meaning damage to coffee from sweat generated by the heat in the hold of a vessel.

Steam Wand: a pipe on most espresso machines which provide steam for the milk frothing operation.

Steel cut: The grinding process of removing the chaff. Does not mean the the grinding mills have steel.

Straight Coffee: unblended coffee from a single country, region, or crop.

Style: A term designated to the appearance of the whole coffee bean.

Summer roast: The summer heat causes coffee to sweat after roasting.

Supremo: of the highest grade of coffee.

Sweated coffee: Green coffee which has been submitted to a steaming process to give the beans a brown appearance. It is considered an adulteration.

Sweet: A coffee which is free from harshness.

Tamper: a device used to compress the ground coffee inside the filter basket of an espresso machine.

Tare: The weight of the bag in which the coffee is bagged.

Thermal Block: a system of coils in a heating element use in espresso machines to heat water rather than a boiler or tank.

Tipping: Charring the little germ at the end of the coffee bean during the roasting process.

To arrive: When the coffee is expected to arrive.

Traviesa: Secondary crop.

Triage: Broken coffee beans.

Turkish Coffee: coffee ground to a fine powder, brewed and served with the grounds.

Type: A sample fairly representing the coffee to be shipped.

Unwashed coffee: Green coffee produced by the dry process:

Ugq: Usually good quality.

Vintage Coffee: a term used to state the coffee was aged on purpose.

Visible supply: The known coffee stocks in public warehouses, afloat and at ports of shipment.

Washed coffee: Coffee which has been pulped, fermented, and washed, to remove the gummy substance.

Wet Processed, Wet Method: removing the bean from the berry which the berry is still moist.

Wilting: The collapse of the leaf or stem of a plant due to the loss of water or disease.

Woody coffee: Green coffee which has deteriorated and lost its commercial value.

Whole Bean: coffee which has been roasted but not ground.



Date: Sun, 25 Feb 2001
From: _________________
Subject: Hope you all are well

Hi Steve and family: Hope all is well with you all. I went in again to your website to see what is new and what you were up to these days..... Still laugh when ever I read your site. Laugh at the comments of others..... Just reread the coffee stuff......... Loved it again... I am going to use that on my doctors....... As I get older, they make me do these tests, that I feel are unnecessary...... (I feel they are a trap of the unmedical society) I was forced by them and my family to have a Colonoscopy done because of the family trappings (history) they use on you.... From now on, I was an orphan..... no history, even if it is a lie.... I was harassed by those in my family with less faith in God and more faith in the snake system, Med profession.

Give up coffee was another one.. After reading about caffeine, what is good enough for the rats, or mice is good enough for me. I have seen animals are smarter than most humans I know anyway... They at least use their senses better.... When they know they should not be somewhere and are in danger, they leave, most Christians do not.....

Enough from me..... Going on so..... Hope you all are well..... Go with God...

Love in Jesus

Diana N____________


Thanks for the article on coffee. I read it when you first published it. I just got around to ordering some green beans from I chose the Saihi Type Sana'ani Yemeni bean.. WHAT A TREAT !! My first roasting/grinding/cupping try was a delightfull success. My wife and older daughters couldn't believe I was in the kitchen roasting coffee. They just knew I was making a big mess. I can't wait to share this with my friends.

Thanks again..










Price, quality, and service are exceptional--
They have a good turn over, so the coffee is fresh:






AND INFORMATIVE PAGE ON COFFEE--  Buy Green Beans through them:


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